The concept of protecting the environment is aimed at preserving the environment from depleting its natural resources, as well as preserving ecosystems from the various sources of pollution resulting from the activity of industrial development projects and other projects that led to the deterioration of these systems. Hence the close relationship between environment and development, and the concept of sustainable development, where the consideration of environmental considerations within the framework of the requirements of development in the planning of development projects through the application of the concept of environmental impact assessment of projects.
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for projects is defined as the study of forecasts and forecasts of potential impacts from their establishment, which must take into account the environmental conditions of such projects so that they do not result in damage to natural resources and ecosystems at present or in the future as a result of their occurrence Of environmental pollution by its activity. From another point of view, the environmental impact assessment of projects includes the study of environmental impacts, treatments, and methods by which the expected environmental problems of the project can be reduced or mitigated. There are two types of environmental impact assessments for projects:
Type I:Assessment of potential environmental impacts of projects under construction
This study is carried out to estimate or estimate the environmental impacts of the projects that are likely to be constructed and are in the planning phase, which are often carried out in the context of economic and technical feasibility studies of the projects.
Type 2:Assessment of environmental impacts from existing projects
This study is carried out to deal with the type and quantity of actual pollution caused by the operation of different projects and thereby reduce the pollutant effects on human health and the environment.
In both types, an EIA report is prepared which provides the information required to make the licensing decision and must be consistent with the study program. The report should include the following information under Iraqi legislation in force in this area:
Second: Basic Information:
project name: Name of the Project Owner: The project site: The aim of the project: Components of the project: Schema showing project components: Staff: Project Capacity: Project Design Capacity: Approvals obtained by the project: Raw material type:
B. Liquid Materials:
C. Gaseous Materials:
Production Process Details: Residues and control methods:
a. Solid waste:
B. Liquid waste:
C. Gaseous residues:
Third: Describe the environment surrounding the project
Fourth: Potential environmental impacts and precautionary recommendations