As part of the cultural season of the Environmental Research Center / University of Technology, Assist. Prof. Dr. Saadi Mohammed Dhaher delivered a lecture titled on (chemistry of global warming) on Wednesday, 27/3/2019, where the lecture summarized the following:
Scientific studies revealed that global warming over the past two centuries is the result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases. But there is no conclusive evidence that climate changes in this era are not natural. The climate has become warmer due to the internal anarchic dynamics in the Earth-atmosphere system (ie no external influence) as well as the direct increase in solar energy production. When studying the possibility of blaming greenhouse gases, spectral calculations show that these gases cannot exceed their effects. Water covers three quarters of the earth is very effective, a steady state since the dawn of history and combined greenhouse gases cannot have this effect. The data also show that absorption of solar radiation is mainly due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The rest of the gas components exist in small amounts that do not qualify them to be the main factor in global warming. From the above it turns out that the rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is not the main culprit in raising the degree of air drag.
On the other hand, the phenomenon of global dimming which alert scientists since 1950 can be the reason. The extent of blackout varies depending on location, but total solar radiation on the Earth's surface decreased by 4% in a period spanning three decades from 1960 to 1990. But after 1990, the value of solar radiation began to increase slightly, with the exception of 1991, when the eruption of Mount Benato. Global dimming is believed to have resulted from an increased concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere due to human activity. The tendency to move from global dimming to global lighting is the result of decreasing atmospheric haze. Global dimming has been associated with the water cycle, where evaporation rate is lower and may be associated with decreased precipitation in other regions. Global blackout also creates a cooling effect of the Earth, leading to partial inhibition of global warming. That the increase in the presence of carbon black minutes and thus significantly increase global dimming could be attributed to an increase due to humanitarian activities associated with the inefficient combustion of oil derivatives and coal as well as volcanic eruptions and forest fires. The deposition of carbon black minutes on the northern and southern poles may be the main reason behind the reduction of the reflection of an important part of the solar radiation outside the atmosphere and thus raise the temperature. The equation below can be formulated to justify the rise or fall of atmospheric temperature in an approximate mathematical manner:
CBtotal = CBairborne + CBpoles
Within the activities of the Environmental Research Center for the academic year 2019, the Soil and Water Laboratory at the Environmental Pollution Department received a group of graduate students from Baghdad University / College of Science for Girls / Biology Department on Tuesday 19/3/2019. , And the teacher Rana Riad Khalil, supervisor of the laboratory and with the help of chemist Ahmed Alwan, to provide a detailed explanation of the devices and measurements to assess the quality of water.
Assistant Lecturer Ahmed Qusay Salam delivered a lecture titled "Fuel Cells ... Future Engines" on Wednesday, March 20, 2019. The lecture summarized the following:
Fuel cells are Energy units that product power out of electrochemical responses. In fuel cell (PEMFC), a membrane isolates oxidation while decrease half responses. The hydrogen gas was used as a fuel and the immaculate or surrounding air was used as an oxidant. Heat and water are the main side effects of this response. PEMFC are considered as futurity gadgets to versatile, fixed, and compact force implementations due to their high power adequacy, nil emission, minimum clamor and possibility utilize of renewable energizes. Transport of mass, momentum, energy, species and charges are the complex processes that happen in one time through working of a PEMFC. Parts of a PEMFC are collected from cathode and anode flow channels, gas diffusion layers (GDLs), ), catalyst layers and the membrane. During the working of a PEMFC, hydrogen atoms are supplied at the anode and split into protons and electrons. The polymeric membrane conducts protons to the cathode while the electrons are pushed cycle an outside circuit and a current is produced from anode side to cathode side by means of electric burden. Oxygen (structure air) is expended in the cathode side and responds with the hydrogen particles, delivering water and heat.
Assistant Lecturer Abdulrahman Shaker Mahmoud delivered a lecture entitled "The Effect of exhaust of internal combustion engines on air pollution" on Wednesday, 20/3/2019. The lecture summarized the following:
The increase in the use of transportation means from planes, ships, trains and cars have significantly contributed to the human’s service of facilitating the movement, transition and utilization of time. However, this important development has led to the emergence of many problems and negative consequences on human health and on every living organisms and the environment, as a result of pollution from these means especially exhaust emissions of engines.
Internal combustion engines of various types and uses are considered a major source cannot be underestimated in the air pollution field, because of these engines produce harmful emissions that have negative effects on humans and other living organisms. The most important of these emissions are nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and smoke. Also, the most important of environmental effects to the fuel combustion products are a global warming phenomenon and acid rain, which lead to the elimination of biodiversity and cause many diseases in humans.
So, should search for ways to help in reducing these emissions while maintaining on the engine performance. There are several ways to reduce exhaust emissions including: changing some engine parameters such as compression ratio, exhaust gas recirculation, injection timing and injection pressure. Biodiesel fuel can also be used in different proportions and it’s blended with pure diesel fuel, as well as the addition of some chemicals to the fuel, all help to reducing emissions and thus reduces air pollution.
Under the patronage of the President of the University of Technology Prof. Amin Douai Thamer Distinguished Within the week of safety and security of the University organized the Center for Environmental Research / University of Technology and in cooperation with the Office of Scientific Assistant CBRNSS Division scientific symposium entitled "circulation of hazardous materials / reality and ambition" on Tuesday, 12/3/2019 In the Green Hall where the symposium included a lecture entitled "Environmental and societal impacts of hazardous materials" by Dr. Saleh Abdul Redha Al Saleh, Department of Environmental Technologies - Environmental Research Center followed by a lecture by Dr. Khaled Hadi Mahdi Physics Department - Faculty of Education Ibn Al-Haytham entitled "M. Issued radiation and how to circulation and prevention "The objectives of the symposium were summarized as follows:
1- Diagnosing the problem of trading of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials.
2 - Search for immediate and future solutions for the safe management of hazardous materials in the laboratory.
3 - To raise the operational recommendations of the proposed solutions and the need to activate them.
4 - professional awareness of the subject of risky trading.